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Posted by on Oct 17, 2020 in Leukemia | 0 comments

In a nutshell

This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of C-CAG including cladribine (Leustatin), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, Neupogen), cytarabine (Cytosar-U), and aclarubicin (Aclacinon) in patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) acute myeloid leukemia (AML).  

This study concluded that this regimen is safe and effective in these patients.  

Some background

Salvage treatment is given after cancer comes back (relapses) or does not respond (refractory) to the standard treatment. The optimal salvage chemotherapy regimen for r/r AML remains unknown.  

Cladribine, cytarabine, and aclarubicin are chemotherapy drugs. G-CSF is a drug that stimulates the bone marrow to produce more white blood cells. It can be used with chemotherapy or used before a transplant. The safety and effectiveness of C-CAG in patients with r/r AML have not been previously investigated.   

Methods & findings

This study involved 34 patients with r/r AML. Participants received at least 2 cycles of C-CAG as salvage treatment. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) were recommended to receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Allo-HSCT involves stem cells transplanted from a donor. The average follow-up was 15 months. 

After 2 cycles of C-CAG, 67.6% of patients achieved CR and 14.7% of patients had partial remission. The 1-year overall survival (OS) rate was 59.7%. The 1-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 72.9%.  

The most common side effect was a decreased production of blood cells from the bone marrow. Non-blood related side effects such as infections, inflamed organ linings, or diarrhea were mild.

The bottom line

This study concluded that C-CAG is a safe and effective salvage treatment for r/r AML.

The fine print

This study had a small patient population and a short follow-up period. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Also, there was no placebo or treatment comparison group.

Published By :

The Oncologist

Date :

Aug 26, 2020

Original Title :

Cladribine with Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor, Cytarabine, and Aclarubicin Regimen in Refractory/Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Phase II Multicenter Study.

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